Good News About Gifts

It’s worthwhile to understand the rules about taxes that might be triggered by your generosity, says Forbes in the article “How To Avoid Taxes When Giving Big-Dollar Gifts.” Did you know that you can give any one person as much as $15,000 every year, without having to pay any gift taxes? You can give any number of people up to $15,000 and they don’t even need to be relatives.

Note that if and when any gift taxes are due, it’s the giver who pays any gift taxes, and not the recipient.

Therefore, if you think the world of your next-door neighbor and give him a gift of $20,000, you only owe taxes on the $5,000 above the $15,000 limit, and that’s also if your total gift exceeds your lifetime exclusion. You don’t have to be generous with cash only. Gifts can come in the form of stock, a boat or jewelry. Just remember to keep it under $15,000, so as not to incur any gift taxes.

The $15,000 limit is per person, not per couple, so if you want to give someone $15,000 and your spouse also wants to give them a $15,000 gift, that works. You can double the gift, while still staying under the annual limit.

If your gift is going to a charitable organization—a registered 501(c)(3), you won’t owe anything in gift taxes.

In addition to this $15,000 annual cap, wealthy gift givers should just keep in mind a $11.4 million maximum that is known as the lifetime exclusion. That’s the limit in 2019, and it will rise next year. This governs all the gifting you do during your lifetime. That’s outside of the annual exclusion of $15,000.

Anything more than that in the way of gifts, and you or your estate will have to pay estate tax. The top rate for the overage is high-40%. However, you’ll have to be mighty generous to get near that limit.

Here’s what’s nice: you won’t have to pay gift taxes every single time you go over that $15,000 limit. Let’s say you give your son $50,000 in 2019. Your gift is $35,000 above the ceiling, which is taxable.  However, rather than write a check for taxes to the IRS now, you count it against the $11.4 million lifetime exclusion. You now have $11.365 remaining.

The best way to go about gifting, is to make sure that your desired gifts are working in concert with your estate plan. One reason for gifting “with warm hands” is to reduce the taxable size of the estate, but there are many other ways to do this. There are also instances when gifts need to be reported to the IRS, even if no taxes are owed on them.

Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney about your gifting strategy, how it works with your estate plan and what gift tax forms you do, or do not, need to file.

Reference: Forbes (October 14, 2019) “How To Avoid Taxes When Giving Big-Dollar Gifts”

I Want to Make a Generous Gift but the Taxes?

That’s the short answer to the question, which is often asked in a roundabout manner: “How much am I allowed to gift?” There are more details in the complete answer, as reported in The Mercury’s article, “Can I gift more than $15,000?” You can gift as much as you wish, to whomever you wish, but you do have to know the tax implications.

A total of $10,000 used to be the annual exclusionary gift amount, which is now $15,000. However, that figure has less significance than it used to have.

In 2019, the annual exclusionary gift limit is $15,000. If you give away up to but no more than $15,000 in a calendar year to one or more individuals, whether that gift is in cash or any property of value, you don’t have to file the federal tax form, known as Form 709. If you gift more than that amount, you need to file that form.

However, the taxpayer for a gift tax form is the person who gives the gift, and not the person receiving the gift.

If you gift more than $15,000, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have to pay a Federal gift tax. It’s actually unlikely, even if you have to file the form.

Here’s another point: it’s actually pretty easy to give away more than $15,000 and not have to exceed the annual exclusionary amount, and even technically being required to file a Form 709. How is that possible?

You are permitted to gift an unlimited amount to your spouse, as long as your spouse is an American citizen. The rules are different for non-citizens.

If you are married and want to help out a child who is also married with children, you and your spouse may gift $15,000 each to your son (there’s $30,000) and also to your son’s spouse (another $30,000) and to each of your son’s children, however many grandchildren you may have. If you want to compound your gifting, you can make that same gift every year.

The federal estate and gift tax are “unified.” This allows you to give away any property above the annual exclusionary gift amount or for your heirs to inherit a total of $11.4 million currently, without paying gift or estate taxes. Unless your combined lifetime estate giveaways are subject to gift tax and your estate on death is valued at more than $11.4 million, there’s no need to worry about that gift tax.

There are other ways to be generous. If you pay for someone else’s medical care (and pay directly to the medical care provider, not to the person), or for someone else’s college tuition (pay directly to the college and not to the person), you can give an unlimited amount to that person, without having to file a gift tax form or making a gift tax payment.

Charitable gifts are also except from the reporting requirement, providing that no interest in the gifted assets is retained by the person gifting.

There are several reasons why you might want to file a gift tax return. One might be to keep track of the value of the gift at the time it was given. If the asset has increased in value since the purchase, both you and the party receiving it may need to track its value, as of the date of the gift. This is the concept known as basis. If the person sells the gift, this will be necessary to determine federal taxes regarding profit or losses.

An experienced estate planning attorney will be able to help determine how gifting can fit in with your overall estate plan. Every situation is unique, and you want to be sure that your gifting strategy fits in with creating a legacy and tax planning.

Reference: The Mercury (June 26, 2019) “Can I gift more than $15,000?”

Having a Generous Spirit is a Good Thing for Many Reasons

Many people give generously throughout the year, for birthdays, to help children or grandchildren with college costs or just because they want to help family or friends. However, according to the New Hampshire Union Leader’s article “Lifetime (noncharitable) giving has many advantages—and not just for tax purposes.”

Lifetime giving means that you are more involved with giving, than if your giving occurs after you have died. Perhaps the best part of gifting with warm hands, is that you are able to enjoy seeing the recipient (donee) benefit from your gift. It’s a good feeling to see a person have his life enriched by your generosity.

It should also be noted that sometimes, giving away something can be a way of liberating yourself. With less property, there’s less for you to manage, insure or provide upkeep.

If you die with no will, the intestacy laws of your state will determine who gets what. With a will, you have the opportunity to make your intentions known clearly. However, since you will not be alive, you won’t be able to see the actual transfer of property. A beneficiary might decide that they don’t want an asset. It is also possible that someone who always told you that he loved the painting in the foyer of your home, may decide to sell it, instead of keeping it.

Lifetime giving lets you react to changing circumstances and provides some control over how your assets are distributed.

After your death, your property and your estate may go through probate, which in some states can be a lengthy process. Lifetime giving also reduces the costs associated with probate and estate administration, because they won’t be included in your estate at the time of death. Assets that come out of the probate estate, reduces the likelihood of estate creditors or dissatisfied heirs. Lifetime gifts are private, while probate is public.

However, there are also tax advantages. If your gifting program is structured correctly by an experienced estate planning attorney, income and estate taxes can be decreased. Generally, a gift is not taxable income to the donee. However, any income earned by the gift property or capital gain subsequent to the gift, is usually taxable. The donor holds the responsibility of paying state or federal transfer taxes imposed on the gift. There are four taxes to be aware of: the state gift tax, the state generation-skipping transfer tax, federal gift and estate taxes and the federal generation-skipping transfer tax.

Many people give, because they want to support charitable causes or help friends and family enjoy a higher quality of life. The need to reduce the size of an estate to lower estate taxes is now less prominent, since the federal estate tax exemption is so high. It should be kept in mind that the new tax laws regarding federal estate taxes end in 2025. That may seem far away, but it will be here soon enough.

Another way to give, is to help with college expenses. Any gift must be made directly to a qualified institution. Similarly, if you’d like to help a friend or family member with medical expenses, a gift needs to be made directly to the healthcare provider. Not only are these types of transfers exempt from federal gift and estate taxes, but they are outside of the $15,000 annual gift exclusion gift you can make to an individual in any given calendar year.

This is a simple overview of gifting. An estate planning attorney should be consulted to create a plan for giving, that aligns with your overall estate plan and tax management plan.

Reference: New Hampshire Union Leader (April 7, 2019) “Lifetime (noncharitable) giving has many advantages—and not just for tax purposes”