Relocating for Retirement? What You Need to Know

Sometimes having too many choices can become overwhelming. Move closer to the grandchildren, or live in a college town? Escape cold weather, or move to a mountain village? With the freedom to move anywhere, you’ll need to do some serious homework. A recent article titled “Don’t Relocate in Retirement Without Answering These 5 Questions” from Nasdaq contains some wise and practical advice.

There are some regions that are more retirement-friendly than others. If you end up in the wrong place, it could hurt your retirement finances. Therefore, ask these questions first:

What are the state’s taxes like? If you are living on Social Security benefits, retirement savings and a pension, the amount of money you’ll actually receive will vary depending on the state. There are 37 states that don’t tax Social Security benefits, but there are 13 that do. There are also some states that do not tax distributions from retirement accounts. Learn the local rules first. If you currently live in a state with no income tax, don’t move to a state that may require a big tax check.

If you live in a high tax state and don’t have enough money saved for a comfortable retirement, then moving to a lower tax state will help stretch your budget.

Is there an estate or inheritance tax, and is that a concern for you? If leaving money to heirs doesn’t matter to you, this isn’t a big deal. However, if you want to pass on your assets, then find out what the state’s inheritance taxes are. In some states, there are no taxes until you reach a pretty large amount. However, in states with inheritance taxes, even a small estate may be taxed, with those who inherit sometimes owing money on even small transfers.

What’s the cost of living compared to where you live now? When you’re working, moving to a place with a higher cost of living is not as big a deal, since your wages (hopefully) increase with the relocation. However, if your cost of living goes up and your income remains fixed, that’s a problem. The last thing you want to do is move to a place where the cost of living is so high, that it decimates your retirement savings.

If you live somewhere with high taxes and high prices, moving to a lower cost of living area will help your money last longer, and could make your retirement much easier.

Is it walkable or do you need a car? Cars present two problems for aging adults. One, they are expensive to maintain and insure. Two, at a certain point along the aging process, it becomes time to give up the keys. If you live in a walkable community, you may be able to go from having two cars to having one car. You might even be able to get rid of both cars and do yourself a favor, by walking more. This also gives you far more independence, far later in life.

What’s healthcare like? Even people who are perfectly healthy in their 50s and 60s, may find themselves living with chronic conditions in their 70s and 80s. You want to live where first-class healthcare is available. Check to see what hospitals and doctors are in the area before moving. You should also find out if medical care providers accept Medicare. Consider the cost of a nursing home or home care in your potential new community. Some areas of the country have much higher costs than others.

Reference: Nasdaq (Aug. 9, 2019) “Don’t Relocate in Retirement Without Answering These 5 Questions,”

Retirement Planning: Where to Start?

While you may be thinking about retirement for a long time, with visions of tropical beaches or grand trips overseas, when the date starts to get closer, it’s time for some real analysis and planning, says limaohio.com’s recent article “What to consider when starting retirement.”

Start with a realistic assessment of your healthcare needs. At age 65, most people are eligible for Medicare. There are many different parts of Medicare, identified by letters, that are optional add-ons to expand coverage to serve more like the health insurance you have while working. Medicare is not directly charged to individuals, but the parts in which Medicare participants opt into, do require out of pocket payments.

Next, prepare a budget and cash-flow plan that reflects your current cash-flow situation and compare that to your expected cash-flow situation upon retirement. During retirement, income comes from several sources: part-time work, Social Security, distributions from retirement plans and earnings from investments or returns from investments.

As you get closer to retirement age, you can secure an estimate of your benefits from the Social Security Administration. This can be done by going to the government agency’s website and creating a “my Social Security” account, by calling the local office or sending a letter via mail. Note that the estimates are only estimates. Don’t depend on those being the final numbers.

Social Security benefits are based on the number of years you have worked and the amount of money that was contributed to Social Security over a lifetime. Many people mistakenly think that Social Security is a government managed retirement system, where there is a relationship between what gets paid and what is distributed. However, Social Security’s process of determining benefits is based on a formula.

Based on your birthdate, Social Security calculates the age at which you can receive the program’s maximum benefit. If you take benefits before that date, then the monthly amount will be smaller over your lifetime. The longer you can delay taking benefits after your Full Retirement Age (FRA), the larger the monthly payment will be.

Retirement accounts, like 401(k)s and IRAs, allow for withdrawals without penalty after age 59 ½. Unless the account is a Roth IRA, any amounts withdrawn will be subject to taxes. At age 70 ½, account owners are required to withdraw a certain amount from IRAs and 401(k)s, known as Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs).

All this information needs to be considered to plan for retirement, especially with the prospect of needing long-term care, including nursing home or in-home care. This usually involves planning to someday become eligible for Medicaid, if needed.

When you are preparing for retirement, it’s also a good time to make sure that your estate plan is in place. An estate plan that has not been reviewed in three or four years may only need a few tweaks, or it may need a complete overhaul. Speak with your estate planning attorney to make sure you’ve covered all of your retirement bases.

Reference: limaohio.com (Aug. 31, 2019) “What to consider when starting retirement.”

How to Plan for Long-Term Care Costs

The odds are that most of us will need long-term care. At least 52% of those over age 65 will need some type of long-term care at some point in our lives, according to a study conducted by AARP. As most of us are living longer, we’ll probably need that care for a longer period of time, as reported in the article “It’s best to plan for long-term care” from the Times Herald-Record.

Here’s the problem: ignore this issue, and it won’t go away. This is a fairly common response for people 55 and older. The size of the problem makes it a bit overwhelming, and the cost to tackle it seems unsolvable. However, not addressing it becomes even more expensive. How can we possibly pay for long-term care insurance?

Here’s a simple example: a 64-year-old woman who broke her ankle in three places. She was healthy and mobile. However, a badly broken ankle required extensive rehabilitation and she was not able to stay in her home. She has been living at a rehabilitation center and the costs are mounting. What could she have done?

There are two basic ways (with a number of variations) to pay for long-term care.

The first and most obvious: purchase a long-term care insurance policy. Only 2.7 million Americans own these policies. They are wise to protect themselves and their families.

Most families put off buying this kind of insurance, because it’s expensive at any age and stage. The average cost is about $2,170, according to the Kiplinger Retirement Report, for about $328,000 worth of insurance. That rate varies, and it should be noted that if you have a chronic condition, you may not be able to purchase a policy at all.

If a local nursing home costs $216,000 per year and you have $328,000 of coverage, you’ll run out of coverage. The average nursing home stay is about two years. As boomers age, the cost of long-term care insurance is rising, while benefits are becoming skimpier, says Kiplinger.

There are some alternatives: a hybrid life insurance plan that includes long-term care coverage.  However, those can be more expensive than regular long-term care insurance. Try about $8,000 a year for a 55-year-old, about $13,000 for a 65-year-old.

Another choice: a Medicaid Asset Protection Trust. You’ll need to work with an estate planning attorney to create and fund this trust long before you actually need it. Your assets must be placed in the trust five years before an application to Medicaid, which will then pay for your care. You don’t have to live in poverty to do this. If the care is for one person, the applicant is permitted to keep about $15,450 of assets. The spouse may also keep a home worth up to $878,000 and assets up to about $120,000. In New York State, you can keep the principle of retirement funds like an IRA or 401(k), as long as you are taking the required distribution withdrawals.

However, what if you have money to pay or need long-term care before you put assets in trust? If you live in New York, Florida and Connecticut, you have what is called “spousal refusal.” The spouse of the person in long-term care can choose not to pay for their cost of care. This can get complicated, and Medicaid will try to get funds for the care. However, an estate planning elder law attorney can negotiate the amount of payment, which may leave the bulk of your estate intact.

These are complicated matters that become very costly, often at a time when you are least able to deal with yet another issue. Speak with an estate planning attorney before you need the care and learn how they can help you protect your spouse and your assets.

Reference: Times Herald-Record (July 22, 2019) “It’s best to plan for long-term care”

What are the Details of the New SECURE Act?

The SECURE Act proposes a number of changes to retirement savings. These include changes to parts of IRAs and 401(k)s. The Act is expected to be passed in some form. Some of the changes look to be common sense, like broadening access to IRAs and 401(k)s, as well as including updating the rules to reflect that retirement is now a longer period of life. However, with these changes come potential limitations with stretch IRAs.

Forbes asks in its recent article “Are Concerns Over Stretch IRAs And The SECURE Act Justified?” You should know that an IRA is a tax-wrapper for your investment that is sheltered from tax. Your distributions can also be tax-free, if you use a Roth IRA. That’s a good thing if you have an option between paying taxes on your investment income and not paying taxes on it. The IRA, which is essentially a tax-shield, then leaves with more money for the same investment performance, because no tax is usually paid. The SECURE act isn’t changing this fundamental process, but the issue is when you still have an IRA balance at death.

A Stretch IRA can be a great estate planning tool. Here’s how it works: you give the IRA to a young beneficiary in your family. The tax shield of the IRA is then “stretched,” for what can be decades, based on the principle that an IRA is used over your life expectancy. This is important because the longer the IRA lasts, the more investment gains and income can be protected from taxes.

Today, the longer the lifetime of the beneficiary, the bigger the stretch and the bigger the tax shelter. However, the SECURE Act could change that: instead of IRA funds being spread over the lifetime of the beneficiary, they’d be spread over a much shorter period, maybe 10 years. That’s a big change for estate planning.

For a person who uses their own IRA in retirement and uses it up or passes it to their spouse as an inheritance—the SECURE Act changes almost nothing. For those looking to use their own IRA in retirement, IRAs are slightly improved due to the new ability to continue to contribute after age 70½ and other small improvements. Therefore, most typical IRA holders will be unaffected or benefit to some degree.

For many people, the bulk of IRA funds will be used in retirement and the Stretch IRA is less relevant.

Reference: Forbes (July 16, 2019) “Are Concerns Over Stretch IRAs And The SECURE Act Justified?”

When Retirement Is Devoted to Elderly Parents

Lynda Faye planned to spend her retirement gardening and visiting eight grandchildren. Instead, she is caring for her mother, 99-year-old Yetta Meisel. The former art teacher is busy all day long, helping her mother bathe, making meals, picking up prescriptions, scheduling home aides and transporting a wheelchair for excursions, reports The New York Times in the article “At 75, Taking Care of Mom, 99: ‘We Did Not Think She Would Live This Long.’”

Ms. Faye and her mother are part of what is expected to be a growing phenomenon, of children in their 60s and 70s who are devoting their retirement years to caring for parents who are in their 90s and beyond.

The financial cost of caring for an older parent is not an easy one. In Ms. Faye’s case, she persuaded her parents to move to their hometown. An addition was added to the Faye’s home, but her parents chose to move to a three-bedroom condo nearby. The Faye’s turned the addition into a bed-and-breakfast suite.

When Mrs. Meisel’s husband died, she qualified for a state program that paid some of the costs of home aides. While Mrs. Faye kept the B&B busy, she paid for 24/7 care and other expenses for her mother from the $25,000 nest egg that her father had. In a few short years, that money was gone.

Now the family home is on the market. Mrs. Faye and her husband have moved into their mother’s condo. Her mother lives in a one-bedroom unit in the same building. To save money, Ms. Faye cut back on the home aides and cares for her mother herself three days a week. Her mother’s Social Security and the state program pay for the balance of her care. There’s an additional $1,000 needed every month, which comes from Ms. Fay’s pension.

With no assets, her 99-year-old mother does qualify for nursing care paid by Medicaid. However, Ms. Faye has made the decision not to go that route. She considers herself fortunate to have a living mother with a good sense of humor who appreciates what her daughter has done and is doing for her.

A study being conducted on the relationships of 120 parents who are 90 and older and children who are 65 and older found that many late-in-life caregivers suffer from their own failing health, which can worsen with the stress, physical tasks and isolation that accompanies caregiving. It can be tough financially, when retirement funds are needed for caregiving. If the child does not have a good relationship with the parent, it can become toxic.

It may be helpful to seek professional advice to find out what financial and caregiving resources are available. Children who are draining their own retirement savings should consider a nursing home that accepts Medicaid. A geriatric care manager will be able to help estimate the costs of different types of care a parent may need over time, and a financial advisor can assess how much the caregiver can afford before their own retirement is at risk.

Reference: The New York Times (June 27, 2019) “At 75, Taking Care of Mom, 99: ‘We Did Not Think She Would Live This Long.’”

Social Security Is Just One Slice of Retirement, Not the Whole Pie

Social Security was never designed as a public retirement plan. It doesn’t provide total income replacement for retirement. Those who expect it to do more than fill in the gaps, are often surprised by this, says Fox Business in the news segment “3 Social Security Realities You Need to Face.” Here are three solid facts that everyone needs to know about what Social Security can and cannot do for retirement income.

Social Security will not cover your cost of living in retirement. Many people actually neglect saving for retirement, thinking they can simply rely on Social Security for expenses when they retire. Social Security replaces less than half of the average earner’s pre-retirement income. Most seniors need about 80% of their pre-retirement income to enjoy a comfortable lifestyle.

Don’t believe it? The average Social Security check is $1,461 a month. That’s $17,532 a year. Could you live on that? Even by cutting back on all discretionary spending, that’s not likely to be anywhere near enough for most middle-class Americans. Even a small amount of money set aside during working years will add up over time. What is the best time to start saving, no matter how old you are? Now.

A Social Security reduction is entirely possible. If Social Security doesn’t have enough payroll taxes to draw from, it’s possible that everyone on Social Security will face across-the-board reduction in benefits in the coming years. There are trust funds available to bridge the gap, but those funds are expected to run dry in 2035. Unless and until Congress acts, there might be as much as a 20% reduction in benefits for everyone.

Therefore, if Social Security replaces about 40% of your pre-retirement income and there’s a 20% reduction, you’ll need even more in your nest egg to pay for your retirement.

Claiming benefits earlier than expected happens often. Social Security benefits are based on the 35 highest earning years, but the amount is calculated based on when benefits are first taken. File for benefits at full retirement age (FRA), and you’ll get the full monthly benefit based on your earnings history. If you file for benefits earlier, benefits are reduced for every month they are claimed before FRA.

Some people are impatient to get their benefits and file early, because they want to. However, many end up filing earlier because they have no choice, knowing that they are getting less every month.

Seniors often stop working in their early 60s, and not always by choice. They may have health issues, be laid off or work in a field that is no longer viable. A new job or a part time job may not pay as much as their previous job.

There’s nothing wrong with factoring in Social Security benefits as part of your retirement cash flow. However, it shouldn’t be the only source of income. Setting aside $200 a month over a 30-year period will give you a $227,000 nest egg, if investments generate a 7% annual return. The ideal is to have a long savings period and to save consistently.

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Reference: Fox Business (June 12, 2019) “3 Social Security Realities You Need to Face.”

Retirement-Age Workers Crack the 20% Mark

At some point last century, single income families vanished.  It now seems the idea of Americans being able to retire after age 65 may be headed in the same direction. For the first time in 57 years, the participation rate in the work world of people of retirement age has gone to more than 20%, says Crain’s New York Business in the article “America’s elderly are twice as likely to work now than in 1985.”

As of February 2019, the ranks of people who are 65 and older who are retirement age and either employed or seeking employment has doubled from a low of 10% in 1985. The biggest group of older workers? Those who have a college degree. The share of employees age 65 and older with at least an undergraduate degree is now at 53%, up from 25% in 1985.

The dramatic increase has pushed the demographics inflation-adjusted income to an average of $78,000, which is 63% higher than what older workers earned in 1985. By comparison, American workers below age 65 saw their average income increase only by 38% over the same period.

A study by United Income, which drew on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, shows a mismatch between older workers who need the money the most and those who are college educated and still working.

The wealthier, college-educated workers who are in better health are working, but the less-educated workers are more in need of the income.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics expects the aging baby boomers to continue to represent the strongest growth in the labor force participation through 2024. At that point, they’ll be between 60–78. Many will likely continue to work, even after starting to receive Social Security benefits.

The outlook for retirement for all Americans is not great. Most people will need at least 80% of their pre-retirement income to maintain their lifestyles, when they stop working. Social Security only covers about 40-50%. The typical worker on the bottom half of the income distribution has no retirement savings and is completely dependent upon Social Security.

People in the middle range have a median of $60,000 saved, so they are not really prepared for retirement either.

The top 10% of earners have a median amount of $200,000 saved. While this number does not include real estate or other tangible assets (and it does not include any potential inheritances), they aren’t fully ready either.

With most experts recommending people have at least $1-2 million saved to retire comfortably, it’s no wonder that most Americans will be working well into their so-called “golden years.”

Reference: Crain’s New York Business (April 22, 2019) “America’s elderly are twice as likely to work now than in 1985”

Could You Lose Your Social Security Benefits to Creditors?

What if you are retired and the only income you have is your Social Security benefit? “Can Creditors Come After Your Social Security Benefits” is the question posed by Yahoo! Finance. While for the most part, you don’t have to worry about creditors coming after your Social Security benefits, there are others who can get them, if you haven’t paid certain debts.

Personal loan payments, credit card payments, or medical bills are usually not able to take your Social Security benefits. But there are some exceptions you’ll need to know about:

  • The IRS will not blink at taking up to 15% of your benefits, if your taxes are not paid.
  • If you owe on student loans, the loan companies can come after your Social Security benefits, even if the debt is decades old.
  • The same is true if you are behind on either child support or alimony payments.

As long as your outstanding debt is not tax-related, the first $750 of your benefits is protected from being garnished. However, if you’re behind on child support or alimony, you could lose more than 50% of those benefits.

There are steps to take if debt is an issue. First, if you owe money to the IRS, contact the local IRS office to work out a payment plan. They will almost always work with people to reach an agreement on an installment payment agreement. This will avoid having your benefits garnished.

If you’re behind on student loan payments, reach out to the lender and work out an arrangement. If you can prove that your financial situation is dire, you might be able to come up with a deferred payment plan or change the repayment schedule.

If things are really bad, consider filing for bankruptcy. If you do, realize that not all your debt will be dischargeable. For the most part, the same debts that can cause Social Security benefits to be garnished, like overdue taxes and student loans, are not forgivable by a bankruptcy. If those are your key issues, bankruptcy is not your best option.

This might be a situation where a bankruptcy attorney or a debt settlement firm is needed. Be very cautious about working with a debt settlement firm, to be sure that they are credible and trustworthy. The firm or the attorney will be able to help negotiate the debts. Remember that the ultimate goal of any creditor is to get paid, and sometimes getting paid half of the amount is better than not being paid at all.

Your best bet is to approach this problem and tackle it before you file for Social Security. If your sole source of retirement income is compromised, you want to contact the local county Office for Aging services to find out what kind of help is available in your community. Don’t leave this hanging and hope that it will be resolved by itself.

Reference: Yahoo! Finance (April 27, 2019) “Can Creditors Come After Your Social Security Benefits”

What is Congress Doing for Seniors?

House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, a Democrat from Maryland, informed the House Democratic Caucus in an April 25th “Dear Colleague” letter that he intends to bring H.R. 1994,the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019, to the House floor in May.

Think Advisor’s recent article, “SECURE Act to Get House Vote in May,” explains that the SECURE Act passed the House Ways and Means Committee on April 2. There’s been action on the companion bill—the Retirement Enhancement and Savings Act (RESA) of 2019. That legislation has yet to be scheduled by the Senate Finance Committee.

In discussing the actions taken during the first 100 days of the 116th Congress, Representative Hoyer said that the House will soon take up H.R. 9, the Climate Action Now Act, “to affirm the principles of the Paris Climate Agreement, in spite of President Trump’s pledge to withdraw the United States.”

Hoyer signaled that a vote on the SECURE Act would follow “over the coming work period,” and noted that with the flood insurance program set to expire at the end of May, “I expect the House to take action to address that as well.”

Hoyer said in the next few weeks, “as committees continue to markup legislation, the House will also take up legislation to strengthen the Affordable Care Act and to address rising prescription drug costs.”

Another possibility for consideration in May by the full House is Financial Services Committee Chairwoman Maxine Waters’ Consumers First Act, H.R. 1500. That bill passed out of that committee on March 28. Waters’ bill is aimed at reversing the damage done to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, under former acting director Mick Mulvaney.

The Senior Security Act of 2019 would require the SEC to create a Senior Investor Taskforce. That bill could be up for a House vote very soon. The House docket also has a resolution on Supporting the Protection of Elders Through Financial Literacy.

The bill includes a provision requiring law enforcement and regulatory agencies to work together to understand and detect elder frauds and scams.

Reference: Think Advisor (April 29, 2019) “SECURE Act to Get House Vote in May”

What’s The New Top Retirement Destination?

Watch out, Florida, and step aside Arizona. CNBC’s recent article, “Retirees are flocking to these 3 states — and fleeing these 3 states in droves” says that New Mexico is the new top retirement destination.

Those were the results of a survey by United Van Lines of nearly 27,000 of its customers who moved last year, through Nov. 30, 2018. Among those who moved to New Mexico, 42% said they did so because of retirement, making the state a top destination. Good old Florida was second, with 38% of people moving there citing “retirement” as a reason. Then, Arizona followed in third.

On the flip side, retirement is also a main reason why people fled New Jersey, with a third of households citing that as a reason for leaving the Garden State. Maine and Connecticut were the next states people are moving away from for retirement.

There are a number of reasons why people near retirement might want to relocate. One of the biggest is the need to stretch their savings and their Social Security checks. A top reason for leaving California is more favorable income tax rates in other states.

Another consideration is how your destination state treats retirement income. These states tax Social Security: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Utah and Vermont.

In addition, there are other taxes to consider. For example, New Jersey has an effective property tax rate of 2.13%, which is the highest in the country. It also has a top individual income tax rate of 10.75%, which is applied to income exceeding $5 million.

Affordability is an important factor when deciding where to live in retirement. However, there are also other considerations. This includes whether you want to be close to nearby family and friends.

Before you pack up the moving van, take an extended visit in your potential retirement location. Get to know what your destination is like, before you settle down.

In addition, take a hard look at your finances to be sure your move is financially sensible, and ask your estate planning attorney to review your estate plans.

Reference: CNBC (April 17, 2019) “Retirees are flocking to these 3 states — and fleeing these 3 states in droves”